Basic knowledge of sunglasses: the damage of ultraviolet rays to the cornea and conjunctiva

u003cbru003eIn addition to reducing the radiation intensity of visible light, sunglasses can also reduce ultraviolet and infrared radiation. Sunglasses are more fashionable. But the fundamental role of sunglasses is to provide radiation protection for the eyes. This article introduces the basic knowledge of sunglasses, the damage of ultraviolet rays to the lens. The amount of ultraviolet radiation reaching the surface is restricted by many factors, such as season, latitude, altitude, climate, sunshine time, and reflectivity of the surrounding environment to ultraviolet radiation. Among them, the sun zenith angle, ozone concentration, cloud, and surface reflectance are important. The amount of ultraviolet radiation on the surface is not the same as that of the lens. Human activities such as personal habits, length of outdoor activities, occupation, etc. have obvious effects on the amount of ultraviolet radiation in the eyes, and other factors can also affect the amount of ultraviolet radiation in the eyes. The degree of tissue damage has a dose-dependent relationship, that is, the longer the irradiation time, the greater the dose, and the more serious the damage caused. The damage of the eye caused by ultraviolet radiation includes damage to the cornea, conjunctiva, orbicularis, lens, and related epithelium. Ultraviolet radiation damage to the lens: Cataract is a significant visual damage related to ultraviolet radiation exposure, and excessive ultraviolet radiation is considered to be the main reason for the increase in cataracts. The damage of ultraviolet radiation to the lens mainly comes from the photochemical reaction. The direct effect of the photochemical reaction is the production of a large amount of oxidants, and other sources of oxidants or anti-oxidants can strengthen or weaken the damage effect of ultraviolet radiation. There are a large number of melanin particles in the iris, which can protect the lens tissue behind the iris from ultraviolet radiation. Therefore, the color of the iris has a great influence on the amount of ultraviolet radiation of the lens. In addition, the aqueous humor can absorb part of the ultraviolet radiation, and the aqueous humor has a large amount of anti-oxidation system that can neutralize the oxidants generated by the ultraviolet radiation. Therefore, the depth of the anterior chamber has a greater impact on the ultraviolet radiation of the lens. The absorption peak of the crystal is in the 280 nm ~ 300 nm band, which belongs to UVB. Due to the high absorption rate of this band, it is still possible to cause damage to the human eye lens when the radiation is not very strong. Ultraviolet radiation is non-ionizing light, which can only produce effects after being absorbed. Its energy is absorbed by nucleic acids, proteins or some other macromolecules in the cell. Some of the energy is converted into heat and dissipated, while the other part changes the properties of some macromolecules. Spatial structure or chemical bonds, the main harm of ultraviolet radiation to organisms is the destruction of proteins and DNA, resulting in cell damage. After the DNA of cells irradiated by ultraviolet rays is damaged, it can cause a series of changes in the synthesized proteins, which leads to changes in cell function, which are related to the position in the lens. The effect of ultraviolet radiation on DNA and lens enzymes finally acts on the lens protein. After UVB irradiation, the lens protein is remodeled, but its turbidity increases. Lens protein is rich in amino acids such as tryptophan, tyrosine, and phenylalanine. Due to the absorption of ultraviolet rays, a large amount of oxidants are generated, which leads to oxidative damage to the lens tissue and produces cataracts. Cataracts caused by ultraviolet radiation are mostly cortical cataracts, and the opacity of the lens is more opaque in the nasal lens cortex than in the temporal side: 57% below the nose, 22% below the temporal, 13% above the temporal, and 8% above the nose. This may be related to the fact that most of the ultraviolet rays originate from the upper part of the temporal and focus on the lower part of the nose through the eye refractive system. In the next section, we will introduce the basic knowledge of sunglasses, the damage of ultraviolet rays to the choroid and retina.
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