Basic knowledge of sunglasses: the damage of visible light to human eyes

u003cbru003eIn addition to reducing the radiation intensity of visible light, sunglasses can also reduce ultraviolet and infrared radiation. Sunglasses are more fashionable. But the fundamental role of sunglasses is to provide radiation protection for the eyes. This article introduces the basic knowledge of sunglasses, the damage of visible light to human eyes. The normal function of the human eye is inseparable from visible light. The formation of vision is mainly when visible light enters the eye through the refractive system of the eye and reaches the retina. The light is absorbed by the photoreceptor cells to produce a photochemical reaction, and then the information is transmitted by the bipolar cells and ganglion cells, and the information is converted and transmitted through the visual pathway of the optic nerve. To the visual center to form vision. The cornea, aqueous humor, lens, and vitreous are transparent to most visible light radiation, and normal levels of visible light generally do not harm the human eye. Visible light with too high intensity can come from sunlight or artificial light sources. This type of radiation is focused on the retina, so that the amount of radiation received per unit area of u200bu200bthe retina is much higher than the radiation energy per unit area of u200bu200bthe cornea, which will cause damage to the retina. Both long-wave and short-wave radiation in visible light can cause photochemical reactions. The short-wave energy is higher and the damage is also greater, such as blue light damage. Visible light causes damage to ocular tissues, mainly solar retinopathy. Solar retinopathy, also called eclipse blindness, is caused by staring directly at the sun without the necessary eye protection. The refraction of the cornea and lens in the refractive system of the eye makes the energy per unit area of u200bu200bthe retina far higher than the energy per unit area of u200bu200bthe cornea. High-energy short-wave visible light (400 nm to 500 nm) destroys the outer segments of photoreceptor cells through photochemical action. Because this band belongs to the blue light region, this kind of damage is called blue light damage. Blue light with a wavelength around 440 nm is a dangerous visible light band that causes damage to the retina. In daily life, the blue light in sunlight does not cause damage to the retina. The main blue light damage comes from artificial light sources, which cause retinal damage due to chronic accumulation. Therefore, the protection of the eyes from blue light damage is particularly important in these working environments. In many cases, blue light and ultraviolet light come from the same light source, such as: arc lamp (searchlight), which has high UV and high blue light; sun lamp (275 W), which has high UV and high blue light; projection lamp (350 W) It has low UV and high blue light; incandescent lamp (60 W) has low UV and low blue light, which is relatively safe. The main symptoms of solar retinopathy are the appearance of a dense central small blind area in the affected eye, decreased vision, color vision disorders, and distortion of vision. In many cases, the eclipse is directly viewed with the naked eye. Looking at the sun for a long time, in addition to photochemical changes, the absorption of long-wave visible light and infrared radiation can cause thermal damage to the retinal pigment epithelium. The lens of a normal human eye can absorb part of the ultraviolet radiation and block part of the blue light. The intraocular lens replacement surgery performed after cataract surgery greatly increases the chance of light damage to the patient's retina.
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