Basic knowledge of sunglasses: the main characteristics and manifestations of eye radiation damage

u003cbru003eIn addition to reducing the radiation intensity of visible light, sunglasses can also reduce ultraviolet and infrared radiation. Polarized sunglasses can also be used to eliminate horizontal reflections on water, snow, and gravel roads. Sunglasses are more fashionable. But the fundamental role of sunglasses is to provide radiation protection for the eyes. This article will mainly introduce the main characteristics of eye radiation damage and the damage to human eyes in the performance of ultraviolet rays. The radiation that causes damage to human eyes is mainly near ultraviolet, excessively strong visible light and near infrared. In addition to these radiations from nature, many of them also come from artificial light sources. According to the different biological effects of ultraviolet rays on human eyes, ultraviolet radiation can be divided into three bands: ①Long-wave ultraviolet (UVA or UV-A, near ultraviolet): The wavelength is between 315 nm and 380 nm, which accounts for about the surface of the earth. 8% of the total amount of light can make the skin tan, can cause the increase of melanin particles in the epidermal cells, and can trigger the fluorescence of certain substances, which can easily lead to cataracts. ②Ultraviolet rays (UVB or UV-B): The wavelength is between 280 nm and 315 nm, which accounts for about 2% of the total light emitted to the surface of the earth. It can make the skin appear red spots, easily cause keratitis, and is related to human skin cancer. It is dose-dependent. UVB accounts for only 3% of the ultraviolet radiation reaching the surface, but it has a large biological effect. ③Short-wave ultraviolet (UVC or UV-C, far ultraviolet): The wavelength is between 100 nm and 280 nm. When the sun radiates the earth, this part of ultraviolet rays can be completely absorbed by the ozone in the atmosphere of the earth's periphery, so it cannot radiate to the surface of the earth, which is generally harmful to the human body. No harm. It mainly comes from artificial ultraviolet light sources in life, which has a sterilization effect. It may also cause skin cancer. The amount of ultraviolet radiation reaching the surface is restricted by many factors, such as season, latitude, altitude, climate, sunshine time, and reflectivity of the surrounding environment to ultraviolet radiation. Among them, the sun zenith angle, ozone concentration, cloud, and surface reflectance are important. The amount of ultraviolet radiation on the surface is not the same as that of the lens. Human activities such as personal habits, length of outdoor activities, occupation, etc. have obvious effects on the amount of ultraviolet radiation in the eyes. Other factors can also affect the amount of ultraviolet radiation in the eyes. The degree of tissue damage has a dose-dependent relationship, that is, the longer the irradiation time, the greater the dose, and the more serious the damage caused.
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